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About Thyroid Profile Test

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland at the front of the neck. The thyroid gland is located beneath Adam's apple and along the front of the windpipe. The thyroid has two lobes that are joined in the center by an isthmus. The thyroid gland has a rich blood supply. Thyroid hormones are a group of hormones secreted by the thyroid gland. Thyroxine, generally known as T4, is the most important hormone. Thyroid hormones affect metabolism, growth and development, and body temperature throughout the body. Thyroid hormone is essential for brain development during childhood and adolescence.

T3, T4- T3 and T4 collaborate to control how your body uses energy. These hormones are also involved in weight management, body temperature regulation, muscle strength, and nervous system regulation. TSH-Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a hormone that causes the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which increases the metabolism of nearly all of the body's tissues.If your TSH level is high, it means your thyroid gland isn't producing enough thyroid hormone (primary hypothyroidism). A low TSH level, on the other hand, usually means the thyroid is releasing too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism).

What should you know about testing your Thyroid?

Thyroid blood tests measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood to determine if your thyroid gland is functioning normally. Blood is drawn from a vein in your arm to perform these procedures. Thyroid problems can be diagnosed with the use of these blood tests.

  • Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine are two main hormones produced by the thyroid gland (T4). You may experience symptoms such as weight gain, fatigue, and depression if your thyroid gland does not generate enough of these hormones. Hypothyroidism is the medical term for this condition.
  • You may experience weight loss, high levels of anxiety, tremors, and a feeling of being on a "high" if your thyroid gland generates too many hormones. Hyperthyroidism is the medical term for this condition.
  • When a doctor is concerned about your thyroid hormone levels, he or she would usually prescribe broad screening tests like the T4 or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test.

How Does the Thyroid Gland Function?

Thyroxine, usually known as T4 because it contains four iodine atoms, is the most important thyroid hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. T4 is transformed to triiodothyronine (T3) by removing an iodine atom in order to exercise its effects. This occurs mostly in the liver and some T3-acting tissues, such as the brain. The amount of T4 generated by the thyroid gland is regulated by a hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone, which is produced in the pituitary gland at the base of the brain (abbreviated TSH). The amount of TSH released into the bloodstream by the pituitary is determined by the amount of T4 it detects.


When the pituitary gland detects a low level of T4, it generates more TSH to signal the thyroid gland to increase T4 production. When T4 levels in the bloodstream reach a particular level, the pituitary stops producing TSH. The thyroid and pituitary glands, in fact, function similarly to a heater and a thermostat in many respects. The thermostat reads the temperature and turns on the heater when the heater is turned off and it becomes cold. The thermostat detects when the temperature has reached the desired level and turns off the heater. As a result, the thyroid and pituitary glands switch on and off like a heater and thermostat.

Frequently Asked Questions

Thyroid function tests are used to determine whether or not the thyroid gland is functioning normally. This is mostly used to distinguish between an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) and an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).Thyroid hormones affect heart, muscular, and digestive function, as well as brain and bone development and maintenance.

The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in your blood is measured by this test. The pituitary gland, a tiny structure right below the brain, produces TSH. TSH is a messenger produced by the pituitary gland that instructs the thyroid gland to begin producing thyroid hormone. Between the pituitary gland and the thyroid gland, there is a feedback loop. When the thyroid produces too much thyroid hormone (tri-iodothyronine or T3 and thyroxine or T4), it sends a signal to the pituitary gland, which reduces TSH production. In contrast, if too little T3 and T4 are produced, the pituitary gland increases TSH production. This mechanism manages itself perfectly in healthy persons.

  • T4 (Thyroxine)
  • T3 (Triiodothyronine)
  • TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) testing is used to determine the following:

  • Newborns should be checked for an underactive thyroid gland.
  • Diagnose a thyroid problem in a patient who is experiencing symptoms.
  • As part of the inquiry into female infertility issues, monitor thyroid replacement medication in persons with hypothyroidism.
  • Aid in the evaluation of pituitary function (occasionally).

A blood sample is taken by inserting a needle into a vein in your arm or pricking an infant's heel.Make sure to inquire about how to prepare for the test with your doctor.

Hyperthyroidism can be managed with medication. Tablets to stop the thyroid gland from releasing thyroid hormones, radioactive iodine treatment to kill thyroid tissue, or surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland are the most common treatments.

Most people can easily treat and manage hypothyroidism with thyroxine (T4) replacement in the form of a pill.Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is the most common treatment for hypothyroidism, and synthetic T4 medicine is the most effective technique to treat hypothyroidism.

Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) is an autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid gland that initially results in hyperthyroidism followed by hypothyroidism,( due to thyroid follicles destruction).

Hypothyroidism is indicated by high TSH levels. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid produces insufficient hormones. Symptoms of hypothyroidism may include:

  • Weight gain
  • Swelling of the face and neck
  • Increased sensitivity to cold temperatures
  • Dry skin
  • A slow heart rate
  • Irregular or heavy menstrual periods
  • Fertility problems
  • Depression
  • Constipation

Thyroidism is diagnosed by a low TSH level. An overactive thyroid is another term for this condition. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism can include:

  • Irregular or rapid heartbeat
  • Muscle weakness
  • Nervousness or irritability
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Frequent bowel movements or diarrhea
  • Frequent bowel movements or diarrhea

A high TSH level indicates a thyroid gland that is underactive due to failure (hypothyroidism). In what is known as secondary hyperthyroidism, a high TSH level can suggest an issue with the pituitary gland, such as a tumor. People with underactive thyroid glands who have been taking too little thyroid hormone therapy may have a high TSH value. A low TSH level indicates either an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or injury to the pituitary gland, which prevents it from releasing TSH. People with an underactive thyroid gland who are taking too much thyroid hormone therapy may have a low TSH result. TSH levels that are abnormal usually suggest a deficit or excess of thyroid hormones in the body, although they don't always explain why. To determine the reason for an aberrant TSH level, further testing of free thyroxine (FT4) and/or free triiodothyronine (FT3) is frequently performed. A thyroid function test is a combination of a TSH test and tests for the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 (TFT).

    TSH T4 T3 INTERPRETATION
    High Normal Normal Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism
    High Low Low or normal Hypothyroidism
    Low Normal Normal Mild (subclinical) hyperthyroidism
    Low High or normal High or normal Hyperthyroidism
    Low Low or normal Low or normal Nonthyroidal illness; rare pituitary (secondary) hypothyroidism

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