Liver Function Test Liver Function Test

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Liver Function Test

Liver disease accounts for approximately 2 million deaths per year worldwide, due to complications of cirrhosis and viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Cirrhosis is the 11th most common cause of death globally, whereas liver cancer is the 16th most common cause of death. Nearly, 75 million people are at risk of developing alcohol-related liver disease. Chronic liver disease is a condition in which the liver's function deteriorates over time. cirrhosis is caused by a continual process of inflammation, destruction, and regeneration of the liver parenchyma. Alcoholic liver disease, chronic viral hepatitis, including hepatitis B and C, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hemochromatosis.

Despite the fact that liver transplants are the second most common solid organ transplant, only around 10% of global demand has been satisfied. These findings are concerning, but they also point to a huge opportunity to improve public health by preventing the majority of liver disorders. To diagnose and monitor liver illness or damage and its overall health, a Liver Function Test blood test at Dr. B. Lal Clinical Laboratory Pvt. Ltd. is recommended. It can identify acute and chronic hepatitis, infection, liver disease, and/or damage, as well as medication-related side effects. LFTs are used to quantify how much enzymes, proteins, and other chemicals the liver produces or secretes.

FUNCTIONS OF LIVER

The liver is a vital organ that regulates over 500 crucial bodily activities. These include waste and foreign substance clearance from the circulation, blood sugar management, and the creation of vital nutrients. Some of its most important functions are as follows:

Albumin Synthesis

It’s a protein that blocks blood fluids from penetrating surrounding tissue. It is also in charge of delivering hormones, vitamins, and enzymes throughout the body.

Bile Production

Bile is required in the small intestine for fat breakdown and absorption.

Amino acid regulation

Amino acids are essential for protein synthesis. The liver keeps appropriate amino acid levels in the bloodstream.

Controls Blood Clotting

Prothrombin is a protein made by the liver. Prothrombin helps blood to clot. A normal PT indicates that a normal amount of blood-clotting protein is available. Sometimes deficiency of this protein in some liver diseases can increase PT/INR and this cause bleeding.

Resists Infections

As part of the filtering process, the liver removes germs from the blood.

Stores Vitamins and Minerals

The liver stores significant amounts of vitamins A, D, E, K, and B12, as well as iron and copper.

Glucose Processing

Excess glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream is removed by the liver and stored as glycogen. It has the ability to convert glycogen back into glucose when needed.

Frequently Asked Questions

Your doctor might order LFTs if you have:

  • Jaundice (a condition in which yellow discoloration of sclera or skin occur, because of high level of Bilirubin)
  • Infected with hepatitis virus
  • Chronic Alcoholic
  • Family history of liver disease
  • Dark urine or light-colored bowel motion
  • Weakness or tiredness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain or swelling
  • Itching (pruritus)
  • Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase/ Aspartate Aminotransferase (S.G.O.T/ AST)
  • Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase/ Alanine Transaminase (S.G.P.T. / ALT)
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Bilirubin Total
  • Bilirubin Direct
  • Indirect Bilirubin
  • Total Protein
  • Albumin
  • Globulin
  • A/G Ratio
  • Gamma Glutamyl Transferase

You can ask your doctor for specific instructions for the blood sample phase of the test. Certain medicines and diets may change the amount of these enzymes and proteins in your blood. However, the Liver Function Test requires necessitate fasting.

The liver is a complex organ that can suffer from a variety of issues. The repercussions of a sick or dysfunctional liver can be harmful or sometime even fatal. Some Diseases that are associated with the liver dysfunction are:

Fascioliasis

This is caused by the parasitic invasion of a parasitic worm known as a liver fluke, which can lie dormant in the liver for months or even years.

Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is scarring (fibrosis) of the liver caused by long-term liver damage. The scar tissue prevents the liver working properly. Cirrhosis is sometimes called end-stage liver disease because it happens after other stages of damage from conditions that affect the liver, such as hepatitis and ultimately results in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or Liver failure.

Hepatitis

Hepatitis is the name given to a general infection of the liver, and viruses, toxins, or an autoimmune response can cause it. It is characterized by an inflamed liver.

Alcoholic liver disease

Drinking too much alcohol over long periods of time can cause liver damage.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)

PSC is a serious inflammatory disease of the bile ducts that results in their destruction. There is currently no cure, and the cause is currently unknown, although the condition is thought to be autoimmune.

Fatty liver disease

This usually occurs alongside obesity or alcohol abuse. In fatty liver disease, vacuoles of fat build up in the liver cells. If it is not caused by alcohol abuse, the condition is called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Gilbert’s syndrome

This is a genetic disorder affecting 3 to 12 percent of the population. It is a common, harmless liver condition in which there is increase in Indirect Bilirubin, which causes mild jaundice.

Liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma are the two most frequent kinds of liver cancer. Hepatitis and alcohol are the primary causes, the sixth most prevalent kind of cancer and second leading cause of mortality from cancer.

Liver disease has many causes:

INFECTION

Parasites and viruses can infect the liver, causing inflammation that reduces liver function. The most common types of liver infection are hepatitis viruses, including: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C.

IMMUNE SYSTEM ABNORMALITY

Diseases in which your immune system attacks certain parts of your body (autoimmune) can affect your liver. Examples of autoimmune liver diseases include: Autoimmune hepatitis, Primary biliary cholangitis, and Primary sclerosing cholangitis.

GENETICS

An abnormal gene inherited from one or both of your parents can cause various substances to build up in your liver, resulting in liver damage. Genetic liver diseases include: Hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

Liver disease doesn't always cause noticeable signs and symptoms. If signs and symptoms of liver disease do occur, they may include:

  • Skin and eyes that appear yellowish (jaundice)
  • Abdominal pain and swelling
  • Swelling in the legs and ankles
  • Itchy skin (Pruritus)
  • Dark urine color
  • Pale stool color
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Tendency to bruise easily

The results of the Liver Function Test suggest that there may be an issue with the liver. Abnormal liver test results in someone who has no symptoms or known risk factors might suggest temporary liver damage or signal a problem with the skeletal muscles, pancreas, or heart. It might also be a sign of early liver disease, prompting more testing and/or regular monitoring. The table below shows examples of some combinations of results that may be seen in certain types of liver conditions or diseases:

Type of Liver condition or disease Bilirubin ALT and AST ALP and GGT Albumin
Acute Liver damage(Infection, Toxins, Drugs) Normal or increased usually after ALT and AST are already increased Usually greatly increased; ALT is usually higher than AST Normal or only moderately increased Normal
Chronic forms of Liver disorders Normal or increased Moderately increased Normal to slightly increased Normal
Alcoholic Hepatitis Normal or increased AST is usually higher than the level of ALT (AST:ALT ratio >2 is highly suggestive of alcoholic liver disease) Normal or moderately increased, GGT markedly increased Normal
Cirrhosis May be increased but this usually occurs later in the disease AST is usually higher than ALT but levels are usually lower than in alcoholic disease Normal or increased Usually decreased
Bile duct obstruction, Cholestasis Normal or increased; increased in complete obstruction Normal to moderately increased Increased; often greater than 4 times what is normal Usually normal but if the disease is chronic, levels may decrease
Cancer which spread to Liver (Metastasized) Usually normal Normal or slightly increased Usually greatly increased Normal
Cancer originating in Liver (Hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) May be increased, especially if the disease has progressed AST higher than ALT but levels lower than that seen in alcoholic disease Normal or increased Usually decreased
Autoimmune Normal or increased Moderately increased Normal or slightly increased Normal or decreased

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