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World tuberculosis day is observed on 24th March each year. This day comes to build awareness about tuberculosis that still remains a pandemic for the world. One and a half million people die each year from this disease (Source).

If we talk about the impact of this epidemic on India it is very huge. Before the covid-19 pandemic, India was dealing with tuberculosis. This disease killed nearly 4,50,000 people in India and 2.64 million Indians were affected by this disease in 2019 (Source).

Tuberculosis is one of the deadliest infectious killers. It is one of the biggest health issues in India. Tuberculosis is caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and these bacteria attack the lung, kidney, spine, and brain.

Read This: What is Tuberculosis: Symptoms, Prevention, and Everything Else You Must Know

World Tuberculosis Day 2021: The Clock Is Ticking

World tuberculosis day is a worldwide event that is held by the World Health Organization(WHO) to spread awareness about tuberculosis. These events have different themes and slogans every year. This year Stop TB Partnership has selected “The Clock is Ticking” as the world tuberculosis day 2021 theme to boost awareness.

Tuberculosis is rising in India day by day and it is important to get treatment quickly that is followed by the doctor. Dr. B. Lal Clinical Laboratory is providing important tuberculosis diagnostics tests 

Let’s check out these tests

AFB- Detection of DNA (TB-PCR)Detects and differentiates Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species (NTM) in a qualitative form using Real-time PCR.Sputum, BAL, Pleural fluid, Menstrual blood, Endometrium, Biopsy, Tissue, Urine, Ascitic fluid, Synovial fluid, Body fluid, Semen, CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF), Fine Needle Aspirate Cytology (FNAC) 
AFB-GenoType CM (Common Mycobacteria) SCREENIdentification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as well as the following nontuberculous mycobacterial species- M. avium, M. chelonae, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare, M. scrofulaceum, M. interjectum, M. kansasii, M. malmoense, M. marinum/M. ulcerans, M. peregrinum, and M. xenopi Culture Isolate
AFB-MDR Screen- First Line Drugs Detects presence of MTB and its resistance to Rifampicin and IsoniazidCulture, Sputum, BAL, Pleural fluid, Menstrual blood, Endometrium, Biopsy, Tissue, Urine, Ascitic fluid, Synovial fluid, Body fluid, Semen, CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF), Fine Needle Aspirate Cytology (FNAC)
AFB-MDR Screen- Second Line Drugs Detects presence of MTB and its resistance to Fluoroquinolones, Kanamycin, Amikacin, Capreomycin and ViomycinCulture, Sputum, BAL, Pleural fluid, Menstrual blood, Endometrium, Biopsy, Tissue, Urine, Ascitic fluid, Synovial fluid, Body fluid, Semen, CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF), Fine Needle Aspirate Cytology (FNAC)
TB Panel 1ZN staining, AFB detection by Rapid Culture and MDR First Line Drugs Sputum, BAL, Pleural fluid, Menstrual blood, Endometrium, Biopsy, Tissue, Urine, Ascitic fluid, Synovial fluid, Body fluid, Semen, CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF), Fine Needle Aspirate Cytology (FNAC) 
TB Panel 2ZN staining, AFB detection by Rapid Culture and AFB- Detection of DNA (TB-PCR) Sputum, BAL, Pleural fluid, Menstrual blood, Endometrium, Biopsy, Tissue, Urine, Ascitic fluid, Synovial fluid, Body fluid, Semen, CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF), Fine Needle Aspirate Cytology (FNAC)

Other than this we also do a manual culture for Tuberculosis detection.

Conclusion

As we know that TB is a global pandemic and can affect all age groups. We need to be aware of ourselves and others. It can be prevented by getting a diagnosis and treatment early.

Book an appointment: (https://www.blallab.com/

Read More: Advanced Thyroid Test – Everything You Need to Know, Importance of Health Checkups for Obese People

What is Tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis (TB),  is a highly infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria spread through the air from person to person, when an infected individual coughs or sneezes out the bacteria, spreading it through the air to be breathed in by others and mainly attacks the lungs, but it can affect other areas of the body such as the brain, kidney, or spine.

What Are the Symptoms of TB?

TB disease usually grows slowly, and it may take some weeks before you notice you’re unwell. Your symptoms might not begin until months or even years after you were initially affected. The infection may go through three stages:

Primary TB Infection

This is when the bacteria first arrive in your body.  Primary infection, occurs in people without specific immunity, In general, normal children and young adults who have not previously been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 

In most people, this causes no symptoms but others may experience fever or pulmonary symptoms. 

Latent TB Infection

This TB bacteria can live in the body without making you sick. This is called latent TB infection. They do not have any symptoms but can possibly develop active TB disease.

Active Disease

Active TB disease is contagious. That means it can be reached from one person to another. It is most often spread through the air.

Symptoms

  • Cough that lasts two weeks or more
  • Pain in the chest        
  • Coughing up blood or thick mucous
  • Night sweats
  • Feeling weak or tired
  • Weight loss
  • Not wanting to eat
  • Fever
  • Swollen neck gland(s)

How to Prevent TB?

Prevention is the key to stop the transmission of TB. Tuberculosis is a preventable disease if detected and treated early. It consists of early diagnosis and treatment of active TB to stop contagious.

If you have been in contact with someone who has active tuberculosis or thinks you may have, consult your health care provider. If you plan to travel to countries with high rates of TB, visit a health care provider or travel health care clinic 6 weeks before you leave. If you believe you are at risk of getting tuberculosis, ask about getting a skin test:

  • before your trip
  • after your trip

How Is Tuberculosis Diagnosed?

The most regularly used diagnostic tool for TB is a simple skin test, though blood tests are becoming more commonplace.

Blood tests

Blood is used to confirm or rule out latent or active tuberculosis. These tests measure your immune system’s reaction to tuberculosis bacteria.

Imaging tests

If your skin test comes positive, your doctor is likely to order a chest X-ray or a CT scan. This may show white spots in your lungs where your immune system has separate TB bacteria, or it may disclose changes in your lungs caused by active TB. CT scans provide more-detailed images than do X-rays.

Sputum tests

If a chest X-ray shows signs of tuberculosis, your doctor may take samples of your sputum — the mucus that comes up when you cough. The samples are tested for tuberculosis bacteria.

Treatment of TB

If you have TB, but do not have active TB disease you should get preventive therapy. The most usual protective therapy is a daily dose of the antibiotic isoniazid (INH) taken as a single daily pill for six to nine months. You are not infectious if you have latent TB.

In case of active TB disease, you will probably be treated with a combination of antibacterial medications for a period of six to 12 months. 

There are drugs currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating tuberculosis. Of the approved drugs, the first-line anti-TB agents that form the core of treatment regimens are:

  • isoniazid (INH)
  • rifampin (RIF)
  • ethambutol (EMB)
  • pyrazinamide (PZA)

Conclusion

A healthy immune system is very crucial nowadays. It is the best defense against TB.  It is very important to finish the medicine, and take the drugs exactly as prescribed. Know you know what is tuberculosis and how we can prevent it.

Also Read: 10 Proven Ways to Boost Your Immunity, 8 Foods That Are Good For Your Lungs, The 10 Necessary Vitamins & Minerals, Your Body Needs