Dr. B. Lal Clinical Laboratory Pvt Ltd


Preventive health care or Preventive Medicine or Prophylaxis is accountable for the measures which are taken for the prevention of a particular disease. There are many factors that are responsible for disease and disability mainly these factors include disease agents, genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. 

To prevent the diseases Preventive Health care is required. There are many methods by which one can prevent itself from diseases. According to various health organizations, it is recommended that all adults and children should regularly visit their health care provider even if they are fit and fine. 

The main purpose of the visit is to –

  1. Look for diseases which can infect you in future
  2. Screening of diseases like high blood pressure or diabetes
  3. A personal discussion regarding the consumption of alcohol or how to quit smoking
  4. Vaccination update
  5. Discussion regarding the medications you are consuming

How preventive Health care is important?

Even if a person is fine, He/ she should regularly visit their health care provider. As regular checkups can help to know better about your health as well as to know that you are having a disease or you can have that disease in the future.

For example- high cholesterol or high blood pressure cannot be known by the external symptoms as these diseases do not show any symptoms in the early stages. So this can be only checked by the regular checkups.

Below are some tests which a person should go for on a regular basis

Cholesterol level
• Blood Sugar
• Blood Pressure
• Colon cancer screening
• HIV test
• Pap smear
• Genetic testing for Breast cancer and ovarian cancer
• Tests for other sexually transmitted diseases 

Another part of preventive health care is to recognize the visible changes that are taking place in your body.

These changes may include –
• Weight loss without trying
• A lasting fever without any infection
• Cough
• Blood in stools
• A lump anywhere on your body
• Skin color changes or sores on the skin

What One can do to stay healthy?

  • Other than a regular visit to their Health service provider one can also remain healthy by following these steps-
  • Exercise daily
  • Quit smoking or don’t smoke
  • Don’t chew tobacco
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Don’t use drugs
  • Alcohol consumption should be moderate, not high
  • Always eat healthy vegetables other than junk food especially for youngsters

When you have diabetes, nutrition and physical activity also plays an important role in your healthy lifestyle. When a person follows a healthy diet plan it will automatically helps him/her to control blood glucose level, also called Blood sugar. To manage this, person should know what to eat or what to drink along with the medications him/her taking (if any).  These things will help him/her to control the blood glucose level.

What to eat and when to eat will definitely help you to –

  1. Control the blood glucose level, cholesterol and blood pressure which automatically decreases hypertension
  2. Helps to control your body weight
  3. Helps in prevention of diabetes
  4. Helps in gaining energy for your daily routine work

Now the question arises that what food to eat if you have diabetes??

If you are thinking that skipping a meal a day will help you to control your diabetes. No, that’s not a good option as it will weaken your inner strength as well as less energy is produced in your body. So, what can you do in this case? Just eat your daily meal in smaller portions or enjoy it less often.

Make a meal plan and follow it in your daily routine. Your meal plan can include –

  • Protein– eggs, fish, nuts, and peanuts, dried beans, chicken, meat substitutes such as tofu
  • Vegetables-  starchy vegetables include corn, potatoes, and green peas and Non-starchy vegetables include carrot, broccoli, peppers and tomatoes
  • Grains- in a day person should at least take half of the whole grains which include rice, oats, corn meals, Wheat.  For example- pasta, cereal, bread etc.
  • Fruits– Apple, grapes, bananas, berries, orange, melon.
  • Dairy– Milk, yogurt, cheese

Which Food you have to limit in your diet?

As you have diabetes, you should not go for following things-

  1. Salty food, which contains high amount of sodium as it will causes high blood pressure
  2. Oily Food or fried food items
  3. Sweets with high sugar content like ice cream, bakery items or candies
  4. Sweet drinks or beverages with additional amount of sugar like cold drinks, juices etc.

What you can plan to overcome the challenges??

  1. Meal plan
  2. Visits to dietician
  3. Plate method- Divide your plate into 4 parts with healthy food
  4. Portion sizes of food
  5. Weight Loss planning
  6. Carbohydrate counting
  7. Take care of your feet to prevent Diabetes Foot
  8. Do aerobic exercises daily
  9. Do stretching exercises

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin available as a dietary supplement and is naturally present in very few foods. This is the only vitamin which can also be produced by the sunlight when it strikes the skin and trigger vitamin D Synthesis. Vitamin D produced by the sunlight is biologically inert therefore it has to undergo for two hydroxylations in the body for activation.

Vitamin D is very important for our body as it helps in absorption of calcium in the gut and to maintain serum calcium and phosphate concentrations which prevents hypocacemic tetany. It is also be used by our body for bone growth and it’s remodelling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Other than this vitamin D blocks the release of parathyroid hormone. This hormone is responsible for reabsorption of bone tissue, which makes bone brittle and thin.

There are reference intake values for vitamin D given by Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of The National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences). The reference values are as follows-

  • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals; often used to plan nutritionally adequate diets for individuals.
  • Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA.
  • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects.

The level of vitamin D should not be less than 12ng/ml as it indicates Vitamin D deficiency. The level of 20ng/ml to 50 ng/ ml is considered to be adequate for healthy people.

Groups which are at risk of vitamin D Deficiency are-

  1. Breastfed Infants
  2. Older adults
  3. People with limited sun exposure
  4. People with Dark skin
  5. People with Inflammatory Bowel disease and other conditions causing Fat Malabsorption
  6. People who are obese or undergone gastric bypass surgery      

Diseases caused by vitamin D deficiency are-

  1. Getting Sick or infected often
  2. Tiredness or fatigue
  3. Bone and Back pain
  4. Depression
  5. Impaired wound Healing
  6. Bone Loss
  7. Hair loss
  8. Muscle pain